Cannabinoids - Part 1
Let's Dive Right In
CBG - Cannabigerol
Cannabigerol (CBG) is the non-acidic form of cannabigerolic acid, the parent molecule from which other cannabinoids are synthesized. It’s non-psychoactive and generally does not exist at high levels in most hemp varieties, but selective breeding is showing increased levels with every generation (1). It is has shown evidence of slowing bacterial growth, increasing healthy cell growth, and stimulates bone growth (2). As a precursor CBG is usually converted into other cannabinoids, primarily tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or cannabidiol (CBD). In vitro, studies have shown evidence that CBG can bind at CB2 and slightly antagonize CB1 receptors (3).
CBV - Cannabivarol
Cannabivarol (CBV) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts insatival hemp varieties. It is an oxidation product of THCv and THV (tetrahydrocannabivarin) and also works as a sidechain along with cannabinol (CBN). It utilizes no isomers or stereoisomers (4). It is primarily a product of THC degradation. Basically, once THC is exposed to light and air, it degrades into CBV. Higher levels of CBV can be found in feral cannabis plants from the northwest Himalayas, and in hashish from Nepal (5).
CBE - Cannabielsoin
Cannabielsoin (CBE) is a novel metabolite of Cannabidiol (CBD). What this means is that as CBD is processed in the liver, one of the metabolites (end products) produced is CBE. Cannabielsoin has been associated with prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleep. Studies actually indicate that males produce more CBE than females, although the cause as to why this is is still unknown. CBD monomethylether (CBDM) is also biotransformed to CBE monomethylether (CBEM) (6).
Morales, P; Hurst, D. P; Reggio, P. H (2017). "Molecular Targets of the Phytocannabinoids - A Complex Picture". Progress in the chemistry of organic natural products. Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products. 103: 103–131.
Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Soydaner, Umut; Öztürk, Ekin; Schibano, Daniele; Simsir, Yilmaz; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz (2016-02-26). "Evolution of the Cannabinoid and Terpene Content during the Growth of Cannabis sativa Plants from Different Chemotypes". Journal of Natural Products. 79 (2): 324–331.
Cannabinoids and the skeleton: from marijuana to reversal of bone loss. Bab I, Zimmer A, Melamed E. Ann Med. 2009;41(8):560-7.
Keith Bailey, Denise Gagné (October 1975). "Distinction of synthetic cannabidiol, cannabichromene, and cannabivarin by GLC using on-column methylation". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 64 (10): 1719–1720.
Hillig KW, Mahlberg PG (June 2004). "A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 91 (6): 966–75.
Cannabielsoin as a new metabolite of cannabidiol in mammals. Yamamoto I, Gohda H, Narimatsu S, Watanabe K, Yoshimura H. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991 Nov;40(3):541-6.
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